Vertigo as a symptom of cerebrovascular disease is relatively uncommon. All types of cerebrovascular diseases namely ischemia, infarction, hemorrhage can produce vertigo. Since, cerebrovascular disease is an emergency prompt recognition and treatment is necessary to prevent neurologic deficit and death. Among cerebrovascular diseases vertebrobasilar territory strokes commonly present with vertigo. Since, the term vertigo is used nonspecifically by patients this may lead to delay in diagnosis of these strokes. This article reviews the epidemiology of vertigo in cerebrovascular diseases and the various stroke syndromes associated with vertigo.
Cerebrovascular diseases in the vertebrobasilar territory have vertigo, imbalance, dizziness in addition to other symptoms and signs. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, superior cerebellar artery and basilar artery territory strokes can present with true vertigo. A high index of suspicion of stroke in patients with vertigo and risk factors for stroke is essential. Other vascular causes of vertigo are small cerebellar hemorrhage, vestibular cortex stroke, rotational vertebral artery syndrome, transverse/sigmoid sinus thrombosis and vestibular paroxysmia.
Cerebrovascular disorders are estimated to account for 3 to 4% of patients with vertigo or dizziness. Early detection and treatment is necessary to prevent disability and death in these cases of vascular vertigo.
How to cite this article
Chakor RT, Eklare N. Vertigo in Cerebrovascular diseases. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Clin 2012;4(1):46-53.