An International Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Clinics

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2021 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Assessment of Psychological Comorbidities in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer as Compared to Other ENT Patients

Jaymin A Contractor, Varun J Dave, Saumitra S Nemlekar, Ravi Shah, Ritambhara Y Mehta, Rahul B Patel, Jay N Suratwala

Keywords : BDI, HADS, Head and neck cancer, Psychological comorbidity, QOL in HNSCC

Citation Information : Contractor JA, Dave VJ, Nemlekar SS, Shah R, Mehta RY, Patel RB, Suratwala JN. Assessment of Psychological Comorbidities in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer as Compared to Other ENT Patients. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Clin 2021; 13 (2):34-36.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10003-1373

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 20-11-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Aims and objectives: • To determine the prevalence of psychological comorbidities in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients as compared to other ENT patients. • To determine the number of HNC patients requiring psychiatric treatment as compared to other ENT patients. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Patients with head and neck carcinoma were selected as cases and appropriate controls were selected after matching for age (±2 years), sex, religion, address, and socioeconomic status. Both groups completed two quality of life questionnaires, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) scale. Further evaluation for depression, anxiety, or any other psychiatric illnesses was done by a psychiatrist. Results: The cases scored significantly higher on the HADS and BDI scale and were found to have a higher incidence of depression, anxiety, suicidal tendencies, and adjustment disorders than their respective controls. Conclusion: The prevalence of psychological comorbidities is significantly higher in head and neck carcinoma patients as compared to other ENT patients. Measuring health-related quality of life should be incorporated as an integral part of the treatment regimen and patient management.

  1. Lydiatt WM, Moran J, Burke WJ. A review of depression in the head and neck cancer patient. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2009;7(6):397–403. Retrieved from:
  2. Kam D, Salib A, Gorgy G, et al. Incidence of suicide in patients with head and neck cancer. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015;141(12):1–8. DOI: 10.1001/jamaoto.2015.2480.
  3. Millsopp L, Brandom L, Humphris G, et al. Facial appearance after operations for oral and oropharyngeal cancer: a comparison of casenotes and patient completed questionnaire. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006;44(5):358–363. DOI: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2005.07.017.
  4. Terrell JE, Ronis DL, Fowler KE, et al. Clinical predictors of quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;130(4):401–408. DOI: 10.1001/archotol.130.4.401.
  5. Rogers SN. Quality of life perspectives in patients with oral cancer. Oral Oncol 2010;46(6):445–447. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology. 2010.02.021.
  6. Gillespie MB, Brodsky MB, Day TA, et al. Swallowing related quality of life after head and neck cancer treatment. Laryngoscope 2004;114(8):1362–1367. DOI: 10.1097/00005537-200408000-00008.
  7. List MA, Stracks J, Colangelo L, et al. How do head and neck cancer patients prioritize treatment outcomes before initiating treatment? J Clin Oncol 2000;18(4):877–884. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2000.18.4.877.
  8. World Health Organization. What quality of life? The WHOQOL Group. In: World Health Forum, vol. 17. Geneva: WHO; 1996. p. 354–356.
  9. Calman KC. Definitions and dimensions of quality of life. In: Aaronson NK, Beckmann J, editors. The quality of life of cancer patients. New York: Raven Press; 1987. p. 1–9.
  10. Rathmell AJ, Ash DV, Howes M, et al. Assessing quality of life in patients treated for advanced head and neck cancer. Clin Oncol 1991;3(1):10–16. DOI: 10.1016/s0936-6555(05)81034-9.
  11. Gliklich RE, Goldsmith TA, Funk GF. Are head and neck specific quality of life measures necessary? Head and Neck 1997;19(6):474–480. DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0347(199709)19:6<474::aid-hed3>;2-w.
  12. Velikova G, Booth L, Smith AB, et al. Measuring quality of life in routine oncology practice improves communication and patient well-being: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(4):714–724. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2004.06.078.
  13. Weymuller EA, Yueh B, Deleyiannis FW, et al. Quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer: lesson learned from 549 prospectively evaluated patients. Arch Otolaryngol Head and Neck Surg 2000;126(3):329–335. DOI: 10.1001/archotol.126.3.329.
  14. Rogers SN. Quality of life of head and neck cancer patients. Has treatment planning altered? Oral Oncol 2009;45(4–5):435–439. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.11.006.
  15. Breetvelt IS, Van Dam FS. Under reporting by cancer patients: the case of response-shift. Soc Sci Med 1991;32(9):981–987. DOI: 10.1016/0277-9536(91)90156-7.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.