Background: Vitamin D contains anti-inflammatory properties and plays a function in immune system regulation. Multiple investigations have proven the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in respiratory and middle ear infections.
Aim: The goal of this study was to see how vitamin D levels in the blood affected the development of secretory otitis media (SOM) and adenoid hypertrophy.
Patients and methods: This prospective case-control study included a total of 150 subjects who were divided into two groups; the case group included 100 confirmed cases of SOM and adenoid hypertrophy, and the control group included 50 healthy children. All cases and controls were subjected to complete history taking, thorough ENT examination, and tympanometry. In addition, serum vitamin D was ordered for all subjects.
Results: The average age of the study participants was 7.65 years, which was significantly older than the control group (average age, 6.1; p = 0.002). However, there was no significant gender difference between the two groups (p = 1). The commonest season of presentation in the case group was winter (70%), while the remaining cases presented in summer. The season of the presentation was the difference between the two groups, and it was statistically significant (p = 0.017).
Vitamin D levels in the cases were considerably lower (11.82 vs 23.72 ng/mL in the control group; p = 0.001). Using a cutoff value of 18.85, vitamin D had sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 90%, respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 96.7%. All cases showed hypertrophied adenoids on X-ray and type B tympanometry on tympanogram, while all controls showed normal-sized adenoids in addition to type A tympanogram.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that low vitamin D levels are associated with exudative SOM and enlarged adenoids. Therefore, in children with these symptoms, measuring serum 25 (OH) D levels should be investigated.
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