An International Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Clinics

Register      Login

VOLUME 6 , ISSUE 2 ( Number, 2014 ) > List of Articles


A Comprehensive Approach to Thyroid Swellings: Clinical, Sonological, Cytological and Histopathological Correlation

S Boobalan

Citation Information : Boobalan S. A Comprehensive Approach to Thyroid Swellings: Clinical, Sonological, Cytological and Histopathological Correlation. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Clin 2014; 6 (2):28-31.

DOI: 10.5005/aijoc-6-2-28

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-03-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; The Author(s).



This study was conducted with the aim of clinicopathological evaluation of thyroid swellings.


Tertiary referral centre, Davangere, Karnataka, India.


Retrospective study.

Materials and methods

Clinical details, sonological reports, laboratory reports were retrieved from the records for the 110 patients with thyroid swellings who were included in our study, between May 2009 and April 2013 and the data was analyzed. Cytological smears in all patients and histopathology slides in operated patients were retrieved and studied.


The highest incidence (37.4%) of thyroid swellings were found in age group of 21 to 30 years. The youngest patient being 10 years. Females (90%) predominated in this study, male to female ratio being 1:9. Majority of patients (35%) came with complaints of swelling of duration less than 6 months. Among 110 patients, 36.36% of them were treated conservatively, out of which 7 cases (17.5%) were hyperthyroid, 10 cases (25%) were hypothyroid and 23 cases (57.5%) were euthyroid and the remaining 63.63% of them underwent surgery. Of the 110 patients subjected to FNAC, 16 patients (14.54%) were neoplastic and 94 patients (85.45%) were non-neoplastic. Upon correlation with the histopathology report, the sensitivity of FNAC was 78.57%, specificity was 91.07%, with a positive predictive value of 68.75% and negative predictive value of 94.44%. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC is 88.50%.


FNAC and USG are valuable tools in assessing the need for surgical intervention in thyroid swellings. USG guided aspiration will further enhance the cytological yield and diagnostic accuracy.

PDF Share
  1. Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. Med J Aust 2004;180:242–247.
  2. The relationship of carcinoma to the single thyroid nodule. Br J Surg 1967;54:1007–1009.
  3. Controversies in the management of cold, hot and occult nodules. Am J Med 1995;99:642–650.
  4. Diagnosis and management of the thyroid nodule. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 1990;23(2):303–336.
  5. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2009;19:1167–1214.
  6. The application of ultrasound to the study of thyroid enlargement: management of 450 cases. Arch Surg 1975;110:940–944.
  7. Does a joint ultrasound-guided cytology clinic optimize the cytological evaluation of head and neck masses? Clin Radiol 1999;54:312–316.
  8. Breast, Orell and Sterrett's Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. Chapter 7, 5th ed. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. 2012. p. 156–209
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.