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VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 3 ( Number, 2013 ) > List of Articles


Anatomical Variations of Infraorbital Foramen in Dry Human Adult Egyptian Skulls, Anthropometeric Measurements and Surgical Relevance

Ezzeddin Elsheikh, Wail Fayez Nasr, Amal Al Shahat Ibrahim

Citation Information : Elsheikh E, Nasr WF, Ibrahim AA. Anatomical Variations of Infraorbital Foramen in Dry Human Adult Egyptian Skulls, Anthropometeric Measurements and Surgical Relevance. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Clin 2013; 5 (3):1-5.

DOI: 10.5005/aijoc-5-3-1

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-08-2011

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).



Evidence supports a clear racial variation in the position of the infraorbital foramen (IOF). Therefore detailed knowledge of the population specific data on biometric features of (IOF) will facilitate therapeutic, diagnostic and surgical manipulations in the maxillofacial region. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphological features and precise anatomical position of the (IOF) with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in an adult Egyptian population.

Materials and methods

Fifty-nine adult dry Egyptian skulls (32 males and 27 females) were assessed to determine the number, shape, orientation, vertical and transverse diameters of the IOF, transverse distance from the IOF to the maxillary midline, the zygomaticomaxillary suture and the vertical distance from the IOF to the infraorbital rim and accessory infraorbital foramen using a metal casting digital vernier caliper. The position of the IOF was determined in relation to the maxillary teeth. The findings indicated that the size of the IOF and the mean distances from the IOF to the maxillary midline, infraorbital rim and foramen was significantly larger in males than in females.


The majority of IOF among the skulls were semilunarshaped in 59.4% in male skulls and 48.1% in female skulls. The majority were directed inferomedially in 88.9% in female skulls and 78.1 % in male skulls. Accessory foramina were found in 21.87% of male skulls and 18.5% of female skulls. All had bilateral double foramina except for one male skull and one female skull.


The racial and gender differences of the IOF emphasize the need for meticulous preoperative evaluation of the IOF in patients who are candidates for maxillofacial surgeries and regional block anesthesia.

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