Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma containing an above baseline level of platelets and growth factors. PRP is an emerging new treatment utilized to enhance wound healing and has been in clinical use over the last several decades within many disciplines, such as orthopedic, oral-maxillofacial and cardiac surgery. Recently, PRP has come to the attention of esthetic surgeons, with burgeoning new applications ranging from hair restoration to soft tissue augmentation. The goal of this review is to describe the current body of literature on PRP as it pertains to the field of esthetics, and to review its current real-world applications. PRP's utility in cosmetic surgery is rapidly growing and offers a promising and exciting new therapeutic modality.
Alveolar ridge and sinus augmentation utilizing platelet-rich plasma in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft: Case series. J Periodontol 2000;71(10):1654–61.
Use of autologous growth factors in lumbar spinal fusion. Bone 1999;25(2 Suppl):47S–50S.
The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (platelet gel) and autologous platelet-poor plasma (fibrin glue) in cosmetic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 2001;107(1):229–37.
Effectiveness of platelet releasate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care 2001;24(3):483–88.
Platelet-rich plasma: Growth factor enhancement for bone grafts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol 1998;85(6):638–46.
Using platelet-rich plasma to accelerate soft tissue maturation in esthetic periodontal surgery. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2001;22(9):729–32, 734, 736 passim.
Osteogenesis distraction and platelet-rich plasma for bone restoration of the severely atrophic mandible: Preliminary results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002;60(6):630–35.
Fibrin sealants and platelet preparations in bone and periodontal healing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol 2003;95(5):521–28.
Autologous platelet gel: Clinical function and usage in plastic surgery. Cosmetic Derm 2000;11:13.
Platelet gel. An autologous alternative to fibrin glue with applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1997;55(11):1294–99.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): What is PRP and what is not PRP? Implant Dent 2001;10(4):225–28.
An in vitro and in vivo evaluation of autologous platelet concentrate in oral reconstruction. Implant Dent 2003;12(1):24–34.
Autologous platelets as a source of proteins for healing and tissue regeneration. Thromb Haemost 2004;91(1):4–15.
Platelet-rich plasma: Evidence to support its use. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004;62(4):489–96.
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The mechanics of the circulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1978:149–74.
Applications of platelet-rich fibrin matrix in facial plastic surgery. Facial Plast Surg 2009;25(4):270–76.
Healing of musculoskeletal tissues. In: Rockwood CA Jr, Bucholz RW, Green DP (Eds). Fractures in Adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott- Raven 1996:261–304.
The cellular cascades of wound healing. In: Davies JE (Ed). Bone engineering. Toronto: Em Squared Inc 2000:81–93.
Current applications of platelet gels in facial plastic surgery. Facial Plast Surg 2002;18(1):27–33.
Effect of plateletrich plasma on bone growth and osseointegration in human maxillary sinus grafts: three bilateral case reports. The Int J Periodon & Restor Dent 2002;22(1):45–53.
Growth factor levels in platelet-rich plasma and correlations with donor age, sex, and platelet count. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2002;30(2):97–102.
Combination of platelet-rich plasma with polycaprolactonetricalcium phosphate scaffolds for segmental bone defect repair. J Biomed Mater Res A 2007;81(4):888–99.
Platelet-rich plasma induces increased expression of G1 cell cycle regulators, type I collagen, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts. Int J Mol Med 2012;29(1):32–36.
Platelet rich plasma. The use of autologous growth factors to enhance bone and soft tissue grafts. NY State Dent J 2002;68(3):22–24.
Autologous platelets as a source of proteins for healing and tissue regeneration. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2004;91(1):4–15.
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws—-an initial case series report of treatment combining partial bone resection and autologous platelet-rich plasma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011 Sep;69(9):2465–72.
Platelet rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: A prospective RCT study, 2-year follow-up. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2011 Jun;20(4):518–28.
Platelet-rich plasma injection for chronic Achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010 Jan13;303(2):144–49.
Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma. Am J Sports Med 2006;34(11):1774–78.
Use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of refractory jumper. Int Orthopaed 2010;34(6):909–15.
Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: A double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 2011 Jun;39(6):1200–08.
Platelet-rich plasma in burns. Burns 2010 Feb;36(1):4–8.
The ideal tissue adhesive in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. J Otolaryngol 1990;19(1):68–72.
Face lifts and sprayed fibrin glue: An outcome analysis of 200 patients. Br J Plast Surg 1994;47(5):306–09.
Early postoperative efficacy of fibrin glue in face lifts: A prospective randomized trial. Plast Reconstr Surg 2005;115(3):911–16.
Avoiding hematoma in cervicofacial rhytidectomy: A personal 8-year quest. Reviewing 910 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg 2004;113(1):381–87.
Recovery from deep-plane rhytidectomy following unilateral wound treatment with autologous platelet gel: A pilot study. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2001;3(4):245–50.
Effect of platelet-rich plasma on ultraviolet b-induced skin wrinkles in nude mice. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2011;64(2):e31–e39.
Face and neck revitalization with platelet-rich plasma (PRP): Clinical outcome in a series of 23 consecutively treated patients. J Drugs Dermatol 2010;9(5):466–72.
Rapid healing and reduced erythema after ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing combined with the application of autologous platelet-rich plasma. Dermatol Surg 2011;37:463–68.
The efficacy of autologous platelet rich plasma combined with ablative carbon dioxide fractional resurfacing for acne scars: A simultaneous split-face trial. Dermatol Surg 2011;37:931–38.
Biostimulation of our own cells for skin rejuvenation. Oral presentation. AAFPRS Rejuvenation of the Aging Face, San Diego, CA, January 2012.
Applications of platelet-rich fibrin matrix in facial plastic surgery. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2009 Nov;25(4):270–76.
Safety, efficacy, and utility of platelet-rich fibrin matrix in facial plastic surgery. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery 2011;13(4):247–51.
Injectable soft-tissue augmentation by tissue engineering and regenerative medicine with human mesenchymal stromal cells, platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid scaffolds. Cytotherapy 2009;11(3):307–16.
Platelet-rich fibrin matrix for improvement of deep nasolabial folds. J Cosmet Dermatol 2010;9:66–71.
Induction of dermal collagenesis, angiogenesis, and adipogenesis in human skin by injection of platelet-rich fibrin matrix. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2011 Oct 17. Epub ahead of print.
Breast fat grafting with platelet-rich plasma: A comparative clinical study and current state of the art. Plast Reconstr Surg 2011 Jun;127(6):2176–85.
Application of platelet-rich plasma in plastic surgery: Clinical and in vitro evaluation. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2009 Dec;15(4):625–34.
Autologous platelet-rich plasma as an adipocyte in vivo delivery system: Case report. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2008;32:155–158; discussion 159-61.
Autologous platelet-rich plasma: A potential therapeutic tool for promoting hair growth. Dermatol Surg 2012;38(7):1040–46.
Enhanced effect of platelet-rich plasma containing a new carrier on hair growth. Dermatol Surg 2011;37:1721–29.
The role of platelet plasma growth factors in male pattern baldness surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006;118:1458–66.
Current applications of platelet gels in facial plastic surgery. Facial Plast Surg 2002;18:27.
Platelet quantification and growth factor analysis from platelet-rich plasma: Implications for wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg 2004;114:1502.
Preparation of growth factors enriched autologous platelet gel. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of Service Biomaterials, 2001 April.