This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of temporal bone meningoencephaloceles, defined as the herniation of meninges or brain tissue into empty spaces within the temporal bone, i.e. tympanic or mastoid cavity, through the tegmen tympani or antri respectively. It also describes the current methods of control of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, which commonly present as serous otorrhea or rhinorrhea in addition to a variety of symptoms, such as conductive hearing loss. Imaging is the mainstay of the diagnostic process. Management of the condition is surgical, and this review outlines the surgical options with special emphasis on the transmastoid approach and the materials applicable for repair of the bony dehiscences.
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