An International Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Clinics

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2010 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Cytology, Pathology, Frozen Section and Occult Primaries in Head and Neck Cancers

Roshni Chinoy

Keywords : Head and neck cancers,immunohistochemistry,squamous cell carcinoma

Citation Information : Chinoy R. Cytology, Pathology, Frozen Section and Occult Primaries in Head and Neck Cancers. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Clin 2010; 2 (1):25-32.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10003-1014

Published Online: 00-04-2010

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2010; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Whilst squamous cell carcinomas take center stage in the head and neck area, almost any mass disease that can occur in the rest of the body can theoretically occur here too. This includes the spectrum of adenocarcinomas, lymphomas, melanomas and sarcomas, not forgetting the diversity of salivary gland and thyroid tumors. Diagnoses by FNAC, open biopsy or frozen section have their own inherent, site specific, individualistic problems, and some of the basic principles will be highlighted. Frozen sections for resection margins and staging will be dealt with. Finally the challenge of the occult primary with metastasis in the head and neck, and understanding the need for immunohistochemistry are also touched upon.


PDF Share
  1. Vol IX IARC Scientific Publication No 160 Editors Curado MP, Edwards B, Shin HR, Felay J, Heanue M, Boyle P, Storm H, IARC 2007.
  2. The neck mass. Med Clin North Am 1999;83: 219–34.
  3. Cytologic Evaluation of the Enlarged Neck Node: FNAC Utility in Metastatic Neck Disease: The Internet Journal of Pathology 2007;6(2).
  4. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in 1103 patients. Role, limitations and analysis of diagnostic pitfalls. Acta Cytol 1995;39:76–81.
  5. Cystic Change in metastatic lymph Nodes: A common diagnostic pitfall in Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2002;27:387–92.
  6. Cystic change in lymph nodes with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Cytol 1995;39:478–80.
  7. Salgarelli AC, Cappare P, Bellini P, Collini M. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009 Oct 11.
  8. rcpath.org .
  9. Vol IX IARC Scientific Publication No 160 Editors Curado MP, Edwards B, Shin HR Felay J, Heanue M, Boyle P, Storm H. IARC 2007.
  10. Standards and Datasets for Reporting Cancers: Datasets for histopathology reports on head and neck carcinomas and salivary neoplasms, 2nd edition London. The Royal College of Pathologists 2005 (cited 11 August 2006 Available at url:http://rcpath.org/resources/pdf/Head and Neck data set June 05.pdf.
  11. The indications for and limitation of frozen section diagnosis. Br J Surg 1959;46:336–50.
  12. Evaluation of margins in anatomic pathology: Technical, conceptual and clinical considerations. Semin Diagn Pathol 2002;19:207–18.
  13. The accuracy of frozen section diagnosis in 34 hospitals.
  14. 1990;114:355–59. 5 Dankwa EK, Davies JD. Frozen section diagnosis: an audit. J Clin Pathol. 1985; 38:1235-40.
  15. ESMO minimum clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow up of cancers of unknown primary site (CUP) Ann Oncol 2005;16 (Suppl 1):75–77.
  16. The unknown biology of the unknown primary tumor a literature review. Ann Oncol 2003;14:191–96.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.