An International Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Clinics

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2010 ) > List of Articles


Imaging in Head and Neck Cancers

Deepak Patkar, Malini Lawande, Rama Yanamandala

Keywords : Head and neck cancer (HNC),squamous cell carcinoma (SCC),computed tomography (CT),magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),positron emission tomography (PET),ultrasonography (USG)

Citation Information : Patkar D, Lawande M, Yanamandala R. Imaging in Head and Neck Cancers. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Clin 2010; 2 (1):15-23.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10003-1013

Published Online: 01-08-2010

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2010; The Author(s).


This article reviews the role of imaging, imaging characteristics and significance of individual imaging modalities as well as the newer imaging modalities in the evaluation of head and neck cancer. In the pretreatment evaluation, imaging is performed primarily to determine the stage of tumor and to look for an occult primary. It helps in obtaining tissue samples to establish the diagnosis, and treatment planning if radiotherapy is considered. Postsurgery and radiotherapy changes can be differentiated from residual or recurrent pathology on imaging. Imaging also plays an important role in assessing the response to treatment.

PDF Share
  1. Cancer Statistics CA 1992;42:19–38.
  2. Preoperative imaging to predict orbital invasion by tumor. Head Neck 2000;22:456–62.
  3. Use of preoperative MR to predict dural, perineural and venous sinus invasion of skull base tumors. Am J Neuroradiol 1996;7:1937–45.
  4. MR imaging of recurrent head and neck tumours following flap reconstructive surgery. Clin Radiol 2002;57:109–13.
  5. Sinonasal esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension: Marginal tumor cysts as a diagnostic MR finding. Am J Neuroradiol 1994;15:1259–62.
  6. Head and neck imaging (4th ed.) St Louis: Mosby 2003;2131–71.
  7. Thyroid gland. In Solbiati L, Rizzatto G (Eds): Ultrasound of superficial structures. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone 1995;49–85.
  8. Imaging for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Expert Opin. Med. Diagn 2009;3(3):237–49.
  9. Staging papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: Magnetic resonance imaging vs ultrasound of the neck. Clin Radiol 2000;55:222–26.
  10. Dalley and Yoshimi Anzai. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Thyroid Cancer. Topn Magn Reson Imaging 2007;18:293–302.
  11. Is dagnostic iodine-131 scanning with recombinant human TSH useful in the follow-up differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroid ablation? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:1490–98.
  12. F-18 FDG PET/CT in the management of thyroid cancer. Clin Nucl Med 2007;32:690–711.
  13. Laryngeal cancer: How does the radiologist help? Cancer Imaging 2007;7(1):93–103.
  14. Dynamic Maneuvers in Local Staging of Head and Neck Malignancies with Current Imaging Techniques: Principles and Clinical Applications. RadioGraphics 2003;23:1201–13.
  15. Imaging in oncology (2nd ed.) Taylor and Francis 2004;639–67.
  16. Head and neck imaging (4th ed.) St Louis: Mosby 2003;1595–699.
  17. Imaging of laryngeal cancer. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 1998;19:492–504.
  18. Stambuk, Sasan Karimi, Nancy Lee, et al. Oral cavity and oropharynx tumors. Radiol Clin N Am 2007;45:1–20.
  19. Preoperative evaluation of the mandible in patients with carcinoma of the floor of the mouth. Head Neck 1991;13:398–402.
  20. CT and MR Imaging of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue and Floor of the Mouth RadioGraphics 1996;l6:78–81.
  21. Imaging in oncology (2nd ed), Taylor and Francis 2004;607–38.
  22. Detection of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: MRI vs CT. Radiology 1997;202:463–70.
  23. Imaging the nasopharynx and skull base. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2002;10:547–71.
  24. Caldemeyer, Vincent P. Mathews, Paul D. Righi, Richard R. Smith. Imaging Features and Clinical Significance of Perineural Spread or Extension of Head and Neck Tumors. Radiographics 1998;18:97–110.
  25. Head and neck imaging (4th ed). St Louis: Mosby 2003;2005–133.
  26. A surgeon looks at cervical lymph nodes. Radiology 1990;175:607–10.
  27. Assessment of cervical lymph node status in head and neck cancer patients: Palpation, computed tomography and low field magnetic resonance imaging compared with ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Eur J Radiol 1997;25:152–61.
  28. Head and neck imaging. (4th ed). St Louis: Mosby 2003;1865–1934.
  29. Loevner. Imaging of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Head and Neck Cancer: The Basics. Radiol Clin N Am 2006;44:101–10.
  30. Cervical nodal metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: What to expect. Head neck 2001;23:995–1005.
  31. Power Doppler sonography of normal cervical lymph nodes. J ultrasound med 2000;19: 511–17.
  32. Differentiation of benign from malignant superficial lymphadenopathy: The role of high-resolution US. Radiology 1992;183:215–20.
  33. Ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration for the assessment of cervical metastases. Arch otolaryngol head neck surg 2000;126:1091–96.
  34. Ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of neck nodes. Arch otolaryngol head neck surg 1991;117:402–04.
  35. Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in predicting absence of fixation of head and neck cancer to the prevertebral space. Head and neck 2005;27:95–100.
  36. Superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced Mr imaging of head and neck lymph nodes. Radiology 2002;222:239–44.
  37. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Value of diffusion weighted MR imaging for nodal staging. Radiology 2009;259:134–46.
  38. Incidence and sites of distant metastases from head and neck cancer. ORL 2002;63(4):202–07.
  39. Current status of FDG-PET for Head and Neck Cancer. J Surg Oncol 2008;97:649–52.
  40. Head and Neck Cancer: Clinical Usefulness and Accuracy of PET/CT Image Fusion. Radiology 2004;231:65–72.
  41. Branstetter IV, Todd M. Blodgett, Lee A. Zimmer, et al. Head and Neck Malignancy: Is PET/CT More Accurate than PET or CT Alone? Radiology 2005;235:580–86.
  42. Pitfalls in oncologic diagnosis with FDG PET imaging: Physiologic and benign variants. RadioGraphics 1999;19:61–77.
  43. F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positroemission tomography scaning in detection of local recurrence after radiotherapy for laryngeal/pharyngeal cancer. Head Neck 2001;23:933–41.
  44. Prospective comparison of 18F-FDG PET with conventional imaging modalities (CT, MRI, US) in lymph node staging of head and neck cancer. Eur J Nucl Med 1998;25:1255–60.
  45. Preoperative evaluation of patients with primary head and neck cancer using dualhead 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Ann Surg 2000;231:229–34.
  46. FDG-PET prediction of head and neck squamous cell cancer outcomes. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;130:1361–67.
  47. Advanced imaging applied to radiotherapy planning in hed and neck cancer: A clinical review. Br J Radiol 2006;79:554–61.
  48. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Considerations and applications in radiotherapy treatment planning. Radiother Oncol 1997;42:1–15.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.