Aim: This study aims to review the nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with distant metastases.
Materials and methods: This is an analytic case-control study. The populations of this study are patients with distant metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma as the case group and patients without distant metastases as the control group. The data, such as general characteristics and risk factors, were taken from medical records of two cancer referral hospitals in West Java between 2016 and 2020 with a consecutive sampling method. Categorical data will be analyzed with Chi-square or exact Fisher's test. While numerical data will be analyzed using unpaired t test.
Results: Forty-two patients showed distant metastases based on biopsy and imaging studies. Most of both case and control groups were male (73.8 and 81.0%), aged more than 45 years old (69.0 and 64.3%). The most frequently found risk factors in the case group were salted fish (85.7%) and instant noodle (83.3%) consumption. The age of salted fish consumption started, the usage of mosquito coils, and family history are significantly associated with distant metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Conclusion: The initiation age of salted fish consumption, usage of mosquito coils, and family history are significantly associated with distant metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Special attention should be given to these populations to decrease the incidence of distant metastases and improve the outcome.
Clinical significance: The knowledge of general characteristics may increase the awareness of distant metastases and decrease the mortality rate due to metastases.
Johnson JT, Rosen CA. Bailey's head and neck surgery otolaryngology. vol 2. 2014.
Indrasari S, Sudarman K, Fedriani J. The primary tumor and regional lymph node clinical status of distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Otorhinolaryngol Hear Balanc Med 2018;1(2):9. DOI: 10.3390/ohbm1020009.
Qu W, Li S, Zhang M, et al. Pattern and prognosis of distant metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a large-population retrospective analysis. Cancer Med 2020;9(17):6147–6158. DOI: 10.1002/cam4.3301.
Susilawati NK, Kadriyan H, Tengah KL. Bone metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 2020;02(03):67–70. DOI: 10.32734/ijnpc.v2i03.4438.
Xiao G, Cao Y, Qiu X, et al. Influence of gender and age on the survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2013;43(4):685–691. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-226.
Utama DS. The characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Moehammad Hoesin General Hospital Palembang January 2013–December 2017. Int J Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 2019;1(1):30–32. DOI: 10.32734/ijnpc.v1i1.960.
McDonald JT, Johnson-Obaseki S, Hwang E, et al. The relationship between survival and socio-economic status for head and neck cancer in Canada. J Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2014;43:2–7. DOI: 10.1186/1916-0216-43-2.
Dantas TS, De Barros Silva PG, Sousa EF, et al. Influence of educational level, stage, and histological type on survival of oral cancer in a Brazilian population: a retrospective study of 10 years observation. Medicine (United States) 2016;95(3):1–10. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002314.
Handayani R, Afriani Dewi Y, Madani DZ. Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Departement of Orl-Hns Hasan Sadikin General Hospital 2010–2017. Int J Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 2020;2(01):1–3. DOI: 10.32734/ijnpc.v2i01.3191.
Hardianti RA, Dewi YA, Utami RD. Risk factor of nasopharyngeal carcinoma Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Int J Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 2019;1(03):110–111. DOI: 10.32734/ijnpc.v1i03.2065.
Zou L, Zhong R, Shen N, et al. Non-linear dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis of 42 observational studies. Eur J Cancer 2014;50(1):193–203. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2013.08.014.
Long M, Fu Z, Li P, et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. BMJ Open 2017;7(10):14–17. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016582.
Du T, Chen K, Zheng S, et al. Association between alcohol consumption and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comprehensive meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019;43(11):2262–2273. DOI: 10.1111/acer.14184.
Adoga AA, Kokong DD, Nimkur TL, et al. Environmental and life-style related risk factors for sinonasal and nasopharyngeal malignancies among a prospective cohort in Jos, Nigeria. Int J Otolaryngol 2018;2018:1–6. DOI: 10.1155/2018/8524861.
World Cancer Research Fund. Meat, fish and dairy products and the risk of cancer. Contin Updat Proj 2018. p. 3–79.
Adeyeye SAO. Heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooked meat products: a review. Polycycl Aromat Compd [Internet] 2020;40(5):1557–1567. DOI: 10.1080/10406638.2018.1559208.
Sharma TD, Singh TT, Laishram RS, et al. Nasopharyngeal carcinomaa–clinico-pathological study in a regional cancer centre of northeastern India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12(6):1583–1587. PMID: 22126503.
Septiani W, Dewi YA, Afriandi I. Association between mosquito coils use with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 2020;02(03):79–81. DOI: 10.32734/ijnpc.v2i03.4381.