Singer\'s vocal apparatus is comprised of her entire body and mind and is easily influenced by hormonal variations. The hormonal changes may have adverse effects on a singer\'s vocal performance. There is very little understanding about the aerodynamic measures among singers especially during the different phases of menstrual cycle in Indian population. Aims and objectives: To study the effect of menstrual cycle on aerodynamic measures among singers and nonsingers. The objectives of the study were to profile aerodynamic measures in singers and nonsingers, to compare the aerodynamic measures between the singers and nonsingers, and to study the effect of menstrual phase on aerodynamic measures between singers and nonsingers. Materials and methods: The participants in group I comprised of 30 nonsingers in the age range of 18–25 years. Group II comprised of 15 trained singers (received training formally more than 3 years), and group III had 15 untrained singers in the age range of 18–25 years. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEVl), and peak expiratory airflow (PEF) were recorded. Descriptive statistics and repeated measure of ANOVA were done to study the effect of menstrual cycle on aerodynamic measures among singers and nonsingers using SPSS 16.0. Results: In the present study, the overall mean scores obtained for all the aerodynamic measures were reduced during menstrual phase as compared to the aerodynamic measures obtained during the follicular phase among both singers and nonsingers.
Emerich K. Pregnancy and the Voice. Gould Voice Center; 2000.
Da Silva SB, Viana ED, de Sousa MB. Changes in peak expiratory flow and respiratory strength during the menstrual cycle. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2006;150(2–3):211–219. DOI: 10.1016/j.resp.2005.03.001.
Price K. The effects of vocal function exercises on the lung function of trained female singers: a pilot investigation, Doctoral dissertation. Victoria University; 2017.
Davis CB, Davis ML. The effects of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on the female singer. J Voice 1993;7(4):337–353. DOI: 10.1016/S0892-1997(05)80257-7.
White DP, Douglas NJ, Pickett CK, et al. Sexual influence on the control of breathing. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 1983;54(4):874–879. DOI: 10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1244.
Williams TJ, Krahenbuhl GS. Menstrual cycle phase and running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29(12):1609–1618. DOI: 10.1097/00005768-199712000-00010.
Hannhart BE, Pickett CK, Moore LG. Effects of estrogen and progesterone on carotid body neural output responsiveness to hypoxia. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1990;68(5):1909–1916. DOI: 10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.1999.
Bayliss DA, Millhorn DE. Central neural mechanisms of progesterone action: application to the respiratory system. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1992;73(2):393–404. DOI: 10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.523.
Schoene RB, Robertson HT, Pierson DJ, et al. Respiratory drives and exercise in menstrual cycles of athletic and nonathletic women. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 1981;50(6):1300–1305. DOI: 10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2060.
Loeppky JA, Scotto P, Charlton GC, et al. Ventilation is greater in women than men, but the increase during acute altitude hypoxia is the same. Respir Physiol 2001;125(3):225–237. DOI: 10.1016/S0034-5687(00)00221-8.
Muza SR, Rock PB, Fulco CS, et al. Women at altitude: ventilatory acclimatization at 4,300 m. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2001;91(4):1791–1799. DOI: 10.1152/jappl.2001.91.4.1791.
Cevrioglu AS, Fidan F, Unlu M, et al. The effects of hormone therapy on pulmonary function tests in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 2004;49(3):221–227. DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2004.01.009.
Pata O, Atiş S, Öz AU, et al. The effects of hormone replacement therapy type on pulmonary functions in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 2003;46(3):213–218. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-5122(03)00191-9.
Knobil E. The menstrual cycle and its neuroendocrine control. Physiol Reprod 1988. 1971–1994.
Stipic I, Polasek O, Vulic M, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy improves pulmonary function in postmenopausal women with genital prolapse. Rejuvenation Res 2012;15(6):596–600. DOI: 10.1089/rej.2012.1337.
Devadiga D, Varghese AL, Bhat J, et al. Peak flow measure: an index of respiratory function? Int J Health Sci Res 2015;5(2):240–245.